Tag Archives: ubuntu

Installing Perl 6 on Debian or Ubuntu

Keep in mind, this is written on 09-Sep-2016 and updated on 01-July-2017 – stuff can change over time.

Perl 6 is developing rapidly, specifically, the MoarVM and Rakudo which comprise the environment that implements the Perl 6 specifications.

Every Linux distribution comes with Perl. Many have Perl 6 now as well. With Perl 6’s rapid development, these distribution packages of Perl 6 can be outdated.

This is how I installed Perl 6 in Ubuntu and Debian. We rely on a system much like Perlbrew, called Rakudobrew to automatically download and compile the necessary stuff for us, and change our environment to be able to find perl6

Git Your Compile Tools

First, you need to be certain you have the tools and libraries necessary to compile stuff on your local machine.

apt-get install build-essential git libssl-dev

This will install the gcc compiler and various libraries along with the git version control system so we can download the latest rakudobrew and keep up to date over time.

Download and Install Rakudobrew

git clone https://github.com/tadzik/rakudobrew ~/.rakudobrew
echo 'export PATH=~/.rakudobrew/bin:$PATH' >> ~/.bashrc
source ~/.bashrc

The first line uses git to download the rakudobrew archive into your home directory in .rakudobrew. No biggie. These instructions are taken (mostly) directly from the Rakudo site.

The second line alters your shell environment PATH to include this directory’s “bin” subdirectory. This is wildly dangerous unless you trust absolutely where you are downloading from, which is never a good idea. You can always just compile it yourself if you follow the instructions on the above-linked Rakudo site.

The third line alters your currently-existing PATH in your terminal to add that .rakudobrew/bin directory (you could also close your terminal and open a new one instead).

Have Rakudobrew Compile Rakudo and MoarVM

This bit’s the easy part now, thanks to Rakudobrew.

rakudobrew build moar
rakudobrew build zef

The second line builds and installs Zef, which is Perl6’s cpan or cpanm tool for module installation — as the docs say: “It’s like [cpanm] wearing high heels with a tracksuit”.

How to Run a Perl 6 Program

Easy enough if you’ve done the bit above to include .rakudobrew/bin in your shell path. You can just type “perl6” and have an interactive interpreter to play around with.

Or if you prefer to edit a file, you can run the file with

perl6 filename

Tough, eh? Or if you’d rather the OS knows to do perl6 for you, give it that magic hashbang at the top of the file like so

#!/usr/bin/env perl6
my $code = "about normal";say "I know nothing " ~ $code;
("I know nothing" ~ $code).say;
say "The new $code";

No need for warnings. No need for use Modern::Perl . No need for strict, Try::Tiny, etc.

There ya go!

Change Default SMTP Relay Port in Debian’s Exim4

It seems fairly common for someone to have a private range of IP addresses behind a dynamic IP address assigned by an ISP. If this is your situation, you may get your SMTP port blocked by your ISP.

For those of us with SMTP relays in a central place on the Internet, having our SMTP port blocked by our “conscientious” local ISP is troublesome. But, they usually excel at troublesome.

So when your local machines or servers need to send mail, like, say, to report that a hard drive in the array has failed… they’re out of luck unless you send it through your ISP’s relay.

Unless… your ISP allows at least some mail ports though (or you set yours to listen on bizarre ports, which is commendable when necessary).

So we know that residential Comcast blocks SMTP port 25 which keeps us from relaying our valid email from local machines. But they don’t block port 587, which they consider “secured” for some reason. Why? I don’t know. You can, and should, and most smart people do encrypt on port 25. And you don’t have to encrypt on port 587 if you don’t want to. And relays can be open on port 587 as easily as port 25. So… not sure why they think port 587 is “secured” while port 25 “unsecured”.  I think they just enjoy being fascists all-around. (please don’t smite me Comcast, I’m just a poor thing trying at humor)

Anyway, mail servers typically aren’t configured to relay on ports other than 25. It’s pretty easy to get them to listen and relay on the other ports, though. This post isn’t about listening, though. It’s about sending. And to send mail, relaying on port 587 (submission port) instead of port 25:

# edit /etc/exim4/update-exim4.conf.conf

Then just change your SMTP smarthost (mail server that relays mail on  your behalf to its destination) line:


You just append 2 colons and the port number. Of course, your mail server actually has to be listening on that port as well. Debian’s (and by extension Ubuntu’s) mail server Exim4 automatically deals with protocol and encryption negotiation.

Remember, any time you change your update-exim4.conf.conf file you need to run:

# update-exim4.conf
# service exim4 reload

That lets Debian generate all it’s Exim4 configuration magic that vexxes so the Exim4 developers. But believe me, it’s nicer than having to worry about doing it all by hand in the pure Exim4 way.

By the way, you can also just reconfigure Exim4 using the standard Debian dpkg scripts, and for your “smarthost” question, answer with those extra 2 colons and the port number as well as the FQDN of your mail relay.

# dpkg-reconfigure exim4-config

That script stuff will also restart the exim daemon for you.

Do that, and your boxes can now happily relay to your central SMTP mail server on port 587 instead of port 25 – or whatever other port your preferences or necessities might take you.