It seems fairly common for someone to have a private range of IP addresses behind a dynamic IP address assigned by an ISP. If this is your situation, you may get your SMTP port blocked by your ISP.
For those of us with SMTP relays in a central place on the Internet, having our SMTP port blocked by our “conscientious” local ISP is troublesome. But, they usually excel at troublesome.
So when your local machines or servers need to send mail, like, say, to report that a hard drive in the array has failed… they’re out of luck unless you send it through your ISP’s relay.
Unless… your ISP allows at least some mail ports though (or you set yours to listen on bizarre ports, which is commendable when necessary).
So we know that residential Comcast blocks SMTP port 25 which keeps us from relaying our valid email from local machines. But they don’t block port 587, which they consider “secured” for some reason. Why? I don’t know. You can, and should, and most smart people do encrypt on port 25. And you don’t have to encrypt on port 587 if you don’t want to. And relays can be open on port 587 as easily as port 25. So… not sure why they think port 587 is “secured” while port 25 “unsecured”. I think they just enjoy being fascists all-around. (please don’t smite me Comcast, I’m just a poor thing trying at humor)
Anyway, mail servers typically aren’t configured to relay on ports other than 25. It’s pretty easy to get them to listen and relay on the other ports, though. This post isn’t about listening, though. It’s about sending. And to send mail, relaying on port 587 (submission port) instead of port 25:
# edit /etc/exim4/update-exim4.conf.conf
Then just change your SMTP smarthost (mail server that relays mail on your behalf to its destination) line:
You just append 2 colons and the port number. Of course, your mail server actually has to be listening on that port as well. Debian’s (and by extension Ubuntu’s) mail server Exim4 automatically deals with protocol and encryption negotiation.
Remember, any time you change your update-exim4.conf.conf file you need to run:
# update-exim4.conf # service exim4 reload
That lets Debian generate all it’s Exim4 configuration magic that vexxes so the Exim4 developers. But believe me, it’s nicer than having to worry about doing it all by hand in the pure Exim4 way.
By the way, you can also just reconfigure Exim4 using the standard Debian dpkg scripts, and for your “smarthost” question, answer with those extra 2 colons and the port number as well as the FQDN of your mail relay.
# dpkg-reconfigure exim4-config
That script stuff will also restart the exim daemon for you.
Do that, and your boxes can now happily relay to your central SMTP mail server on port 587 instead of port 25 – or whatever other port your preferences or necessities might take you.